Fermentation processes are a necessary condition for the existence of all living things. Fermentation as a chemical process is characterized by rapid growth of microorganisms due to the decomposition of sugars with the release of carbon dioxide. If the medium is dough, the gas bubbles give it additional volume. To this end, the fermentation process is widely used for the manufacture of bakery products.
The main stimulators of fermentation during baking are yeasts and lactic acid bacteria.
Yeast - microscopic single-celled fungi that trigger the process of alcoholic fermentation. The result is the decomposition of sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide. There are about one and a half thousand species of yeast fungi. Like any microorganisms, they are useful and harmful to humans.
Yeast fungi exist everywhere. They can be found on the surface of leaves, fruits, from where they fall into the soil, spread by birds, insects. Such yeast is called wild.
An alternative to yeast is the use of home-made sourdough and ready-made fermented foods. Sourdough is a generalized culinary designation of lactic acid fermentation stimulator, which proceeds with evolution of gas and lactic acid. No type of fermentation exists in its pure form, since fungi and bacteria are common everywhere.
Fear has large eyes.
On an industrial scale, artificial cultured yeast is used, which has high productivity and is chemically stable. They allow you to reduce the full cycle of baking in the factory to three hours.
In the course of the struggle for consumers, unscrupulous producers of “live” bread are conducting a campaign to discredit cultural yeasts. The phrase “thermophilic yeast” was coined as a horror story, although there is no evidence of the existence of such evidence. For the purpose of anti-advertising, emphasis has been placed on the suppression of intestinal microflora by the vital activity products of thermophilic yeast, on their carcinogenic properties.
The real danger is the use of grinded cereals, high-grade flour with a high content of gluten, as well as the abuse of bakery products in particular and overeating in general.
Patience and Labor
To use yeast or not is a matter of personal preference.
Choosing a recipe for dough without yeast depends on the dish that you are going to cook. Add any fermented milk product to the flour if you are going to fry the products in butter. Sour cream or two-day kefir suits.
Baking powder will help to dispense with yeast. It is easy to cook it yourself. Mix 3 teaspoons of citric acid, 12 teaspoons of flour, 5 teaspoons of soda. The following recipes involve the use of leaven. Opara must stand to gain strength, so be patient. It is prepared about a day before baking. Cooking recipes are many, the easiest is to mix water, flour and sugar and put in a warm place.
In flour you can add grated boiled potatoes. Possible options with the addition of beer or sugar.
One of the recipes implies a three-day production cycle, during which a mixture of water and flour, diluted to the consistency of sour cream, is supplemented every day with a new batch. It is better for him to use flour of the first or second grade.
When making kvass, flour in the dough is replaced with a piece of rye bread. Ready sourdough gets a sharp taste, it becomes turbid. It is poured cold boiled water, add a couple of pieces of rye bread, sugar to taste. Dish tightly closed lid, clean in a warm place. After a day or two, kvass can be drained, and the remaining mass can be used again.