No matter how much it says about the dangers of smoked health products, but they are tasty.
And, if you do not forget about the sense of proportion in their use, then smoking is no worse than other methods of harvesting.
Smoking of pink salmon can be practiced not only by residents of Kamchatka or the Far East who live in natural habitats of salmon fish, but also by all those who wish, as this product is available in abundance, salted and frozen.
Smoking of pink salmon - general technological principles
True, this technology, due to the specific conditions of preparation, unfortunately, is not available in the conditions of an apartment in a high-rise building. Therefore, smokers of pink salmon will have to look for opportunities in order not to quarrel with their neighbors because of the smoke and not create problems related to the risk of a fire.
Smoke of pink salmon is preceded by a series of preparatory stages, which are briefly outlined in this article.
Sorting and cutting of raw materials
Pink salmon has a relatively small size - on average, from 1 kg to 1.5 kg. Females of pink salmon weigh less; as a rule, their weight does not exceed one kilogram. Rarely individual individuals reach a weight of 3 kg. The length of the fish is 45-50 cm.
The most valuable meat pink salmon, caught before entering the spawning, contains 18-21% protein and 9-11% fat. Pink salmon, caught in the sea, is more tender and pink. A fish caught on the way to the spawning grounds and in places of spawning a is less fat and nutritious, the meat has a low density, a pale color, with a fat content of up to 2%.
Depending on the size, fat content, each type of fish has a different duration of preparation, both when salting and when smoked. For this reason, it is necessary to select a fish of the same type and size for processing.
When cutting pink salmon into fillets, the head, tail and fin parts are cut off. Then, without separating from the skin, cut with a special knife, alternately side parts, freeing pink salmon from the ridge. After this, the rib bones are removed and the pink salmon fillet is ready for salting. Small pieces of fillet can be smoked on the grill, not hanging them in a smokehouse on the twine or hook. To smoke the whole pink salmon, the gills are removed from the head, an incision is made along the entire length of the abdomen, and the insides are removed. The fish is cut into layers, with the head and without a head, into a balyk and carcass. The length of salting and smoking of pink salmon will depend on the size and method of cutting.
Salted fish is suitable for cold smoking, and frozen - more suitable for hot. Although, at home, frozen semi-finished products are often used as a raw material for smoking.
In this case, it is necessary to know the technology of salmon salmon before smoking.
Salting of pink salmon
To begin with, briefly consider all the methods and types of salting fish, as this issue is important for further smoked pink salmon and obtain the best result. Referring to reliable sources that describe the processing technology of fish products, guided by the scientific basis and the requirements of GOST, we find the answer to your question. And it turns out that the fish should not be salted 10-12 hours, as home-grown technologists often advise, and, in particular, for pink salting is 7-9 days (without cooling), and, accordingly, 10-12 days using the cooling method.
The duration of fish storage and its taste qualities depend on the degree of salting. Therefore, it is necessary to adhere to the observance of salting technology before smoking the pink salmon. So, Ambassador pink salmon.
Salted dry: poured salted fish. Whole carcasses are placed in the tank up the belly, filling them with salt. For those who are lucky enough to get fresh fish, you need to consider that under the gill plates you also need to pour salt.
Salting is body or wet: hemlock is a liquid that is released from the tissues of fish during salting, because salt draws water out according to its inherent biochemical properties. You can also prepare a saline solution, that is, use the method of wet salting, with the addition of water.
Mixed type salting: in this case, the combined salting method of fish of the first and second type is used. In addition to the methods of salmon salmon, the temperature characteristics affect the quality characteristics of the product. Depending on the type of fish, the density of its fabric, the fat content and the size of the carcass, the temperature regime can be warm, chilled and cold.
~ At room temperature fresh fish is salted with a dense texture of meat, without damage;
~ The cooling method is used for salting herring and salmon, including pink salmon (!). For this, the fish before the salting is cooled with a mixture of salt and ice to 0 ° C - 4 ° C.
~ For large and oily fish, cold salting is preferred, with temperatures below zero degrees. In such cases, the amount of salt is increased, and the duration of salting increases.
An ambassador using the cooling method for pink salmon, especially large sizes, is preferable. In this case, without increasing the volume of salt, you can get a high-quality salted product without the risk of damage. While the salt will slowly penetrate the inside of the carcass, the cold, meanwhile, will protect the fish mix from spoilage from the inside.
Here, at once it is worth paying attention that only salt of coarse grinding is suitable for salting fish. Never use iodized salt. It is acceptable to use coarse sea salt. From the percentage of salt depends not only the taste of the finished product, but also its shelf life.
The salt content are distinguished:
Salted fish - 7-10% salt;
Medium salt - up to 14%;
Strong Salted - more than 14%.
With dry salting, the percentage of salt should be calculated based on the weight of the fish. With a combined or wet method, the weight of the fish must be added to the weight of the fish.
It is impossible to underestimate the degree of salt content and the time of exposure to the salt medium. As with any food, it is peculiar to fish, in case of violation of the necessary conditions, defeat by the pathogenic environment, leading to severe food poisoning or spoilage of the product.
At salt processing of fish semi-finished products the structure of fabric fibers changes. Displacing fluid from tissues, salt destroys harmful microorganisms. The higher its content in fish is, the more its shelf life increases, but at the same time its taste is lost. Strongly salted fish is soaked before cooking, from which its nutritional value is lost. The readiness of salted fish cannot be determined using only one of the recommendations found on the Internet, where the exact time of keeping the fish in salt is indicated. To do this, you still need to focus on your own organoleptic sensations; to assess the weight of the raw material, the temperature at which the salting process took place and the quantitative content of salt. These indicators, in each case, are an individual factor.
The following hint can be taken as the basis: the correctly salted raw material does not smell of raw fish, the structure of the fabric is dense, elastic, without blood patches, of a pleasant pinkish color.
In fact, salted fish is a finished product that does not require further processing. Such fish is smoked in a cold way to give it a new taste. Lightly salted or under-salted salmon can be used for hot and half-hot smoking.
Use of spicy additives
According to the general industrial technology, this indicator is classified according to four points:
1. Simple salting, using the same salt.
2. Spicy salting - with the addition of various spices and sugar.
3. Special - sweet salting, with the use of sugar, used mainly for the preparation of preserves.
4. Salt pickled - using acetic acid as an additive.
Spices improve taste and create an additional variety of smoked fish assortment. Here you can vary at their own discretion, adding favorite ingredients or excluding what seems superfluous, unacceptable.
Making sure that pink salmon is salted qualitatively, we begin the process of preparation for smoking. We remove excess salt from the surface of carcasses or fillets. To do this, the surface of the fish is washed with a weak salt solution or running water (not higher than 20 ° C). At this stage, it is possible to correct the salting defects: if in the process of salting the fish was salted, it can be soaked.
A large pink is pierced at the tail and strung on hooks or suspended in a drying cabinet with a twine stretched through the tail (rope).
Before sending the pink salmon to the smokehouse , the surface is smeared with vegetable oil. It is better to use purified oil, odorless. For long-term storage of pink salmon, the surface is also treated with antiseptics. Hot and half smoked fish are not subject to long-term storage. The duration and temperature of drying (curing) also depends on the type of smoking chosen.
For cold smoking pink salmon is dried for two to five days, depending on the size of the raw materials. The belly of the whole fish is set on the struts. For hot and half-hot smoked salmon, raw materials are dried for up to 2-3 hours.
Now about the drying cabinet, which is a conventional design consisting of a frame of arbitrary shape, covered with anti-mosquito net.
We carry the fish, pre-suspended on the twine or hooks, in the open air or in the basement (in winter).
The main condition for drying is a continuous stream of air, low humidity and the absence of traces of insects on the surface of semi-finished products.
It is more difficult to provide at home the necessary discharge air temperature for drying. Ideally, in order to prepare for cold smoking of pink salmon, the temperature during drying should be in the range of 5-10 ° C.
For drying before hot and half-hot smoking of pink salmon, the temperature conditions are less severe, as the whole process takes a short time.
Tip: the ideal shape of the drying cabinet is one whose frame is placed in a smoke chamber in size, as is done in production. Accordingly, the frame should be made of durable metal, and anti-mosquito nets should be removable.
Equipment and materials for smoking of pink salmon.
As with any method of preservation, smoking requires the presence of some equipment, consumables and compliance with technical conditions.
To buy a finished smokehouse or build it at the summer cottage on your own is a matter to be solved individually. Here you can only say that, having saved on the purchase of a mini smokehouse, you will have to spend money on sawdust for smoking. And, again, saving time is also not the last factor. In addition, these same units for home-smoked, produced by the industry, are equipped, in addition to the compressor and smoke generator, with thermometers, which is important for the quality of the finished product. As for sawdust or shavings - an expendable material on which depends not only smoking, but also the smell of smoked fish - here, most experts recommend choosing alder or juniper.
If it is not possible to find such a consumable near the suburban area, then choose chips or sawdust of fruit trees. Apple, pear, cherry, cherry, branches of berry bushes - a win-win option. It is possible to mix in such sawdust leaves of oak, black currant (preferably fresh), juniper berries, dried.
The amount of consumables required will depend on the smoking device - from two buckets to two or three bags of sawdust for one smoking cycle. In addition, the duration and temperature of cold and hot smoked pink salmon do not match, which also affects the difference in the consumption of raw wood.
Processing fish with liquid smoke has nothing to do with the smoking process. Liquid smoke - wood tar, formed by burning wood, containing toxic phenol.
Of course, there is liquid smoke created in industrial environments, and it is commercially available. The liquid is subjected to special cleaning, in order to eliminate unhealthy side effects. But the resulting liquid with the smell and taste of smoke, is not adequately preservative for products processed by the method of smoking. Rather, this substance matters as a flavoring ingredient.
The essence of the pseudo-smoking is the soaking (irrigation) of meat, fish products, as well as cheeses, vegetables and fruits. It is no secret that in view of the savings, and therefore additional profits, this method is quite widespread in the industrial manufacture of smoked products. And most manufacturers prefer to keep silent about this technology, due to the reasons listed above.
At home, for example, for smoking pink salmon, you can use this rather quick way to create taste, but taking into account that it is absolutely not suitable for long-term storage.
“Smoke” of pink salmon with liquid smoke gives the finished product high humidity and a watery, sour taste. Even the appearance of the finished, smoked fish has a different shade with “liquid” and natural smoked pink salmon: in the first case, after smoking, the product becomes matte and reddish, and in the second - the color is more saturated and bright, glossy. Nevertheless, such a method exists, and the choice is a personal matter. And now - close-ups are natural methods of cold, half-hot and hot smoked pink salmon.
Considering that all the preliminary stages - selection, cutting, salting and drying (drying) of pink salmon are described above - let's consider the general principles of each method of smoking.
Recipe 1. Smoked pink salmon cold, dry salting
Frozen fish are sprinkled with salt and tightly placed in a resealable container. Whole carcasses are laid on the backs, belly up, fillet pieces are placed with the flesh up, preferably in one row. From above, the fish is covered with a layer of salt, pressed down with a yoke. The container is stored in the refrigerator for at least 10 days.
Then check the readiness of salting. Salty pink salmon are taken out of the container, the brine and excess salt are washed off, or soaked in cold water, and then washed.
Whole carcasses are hung on hooks by the tail, and pieces are hung on the grill; and placed to dry in an oven.
After soaking in the drying cabinet, the fish are coated on the outside with a layer of oil and smoked, at a temperature not higher than 25 ° C. The total processing time of smoke depends on the size of the semi-finished product: loin pieces weighing up to 300 g, smoked for 2-3 days; whole, large fish - 3-6 days.
It is better to get the fish out of the smoking chamber after complete cooling.
Readiness is checked by organoleptic method. The surface of the carcass should be dry and dense. The pulp should not be separated from the bone.
In the process of cold smoking, the pink salmon loses 15% of its initial weight - this indicator can be oriented to make sure that the fish is ready.
Recipe 2. Hot-pink salmon smoking
Prepare marinade (pickle) for fresh or frozen pink salmon.
For the marinade, you can use not only salt, but add sugar and any spices suitable for fish to it.
For hot smoked salt is used in moderation (not more than 10%), because such pink salmon is not stored for a long time. Sugar add no more than half the norm of salt.
Frozen fish without defrosting tie it with a string, and pour cold marinade on it. Try to keep the raw materials in the fridge during pickling, so that the pink salmon is thawed out gradually and does not become watery. The exposure time depends on the size of the fish or fillet pieces, but it is sharply reduced, against salting for cold smoking - 2-3 hours are sufficient after full defrosting of the semi-finished product.
In the finished product salt should not contain more than 1-2%. For hot smoked, pink salmon is also dried, but the dwell time in the drying cabinet is reduced to 1-2 hours, depending on the size of the fish.
It is possible to determine the readiness of fish for smoking by appearance: a properly dried pink salmon has a dry and weathered surface, without draining the liquid.
For hot-smoked humpback salmon, it is necessary to hang up by strapping or put on a grate. Hot smoked fish has a softer and friable structure; therefore, when hanging by the tail or on hooks, it can break loose from the mount and fall to the bottom of the furnace.
For hot smoking, the temperature of the smoke in the smoke chamber from 60 ° C at the beginning of smoking to 110 ° C is required to bring it to full readiness.
It is not necessary to sharply raise the temperature for hot smoking, as this can cause a large amount of steam to appear in the smokehouse. The temperature in the smokehouse is maintained until the inside of the carcass is heated to 60 ° C.
The readiness of hot smoked salmon is checked with the help of a wooden stick, which is pierced through the back or the thickest part of the fillet, watching for the release of the juice. The maximum temperature in the smokehouse is kept no more than 15 minutes, and then it is gradually reduced. Fish from the smokehouse get only after complete cooling.
For fillet pieces weighing 300 g, 25-30 minutes is enough for the entire smoking cycle, respectively, the smoking time increases in proportion to the weight of the semi-finished product.
To maintain the required temperature during hot-smoked, in addition to sawdust and shavings, dry logs of small size are used.
Firewood is used first, to heat the chamber, then, at the last stage, as the temperature drops, sawdust is poured to give the product a beautiful color.
Recipe 3. Smoking of pink salmon in a half-hot way
This way of smoking pink salmon is relatively new. For half-hot smoking use raw materials, the duration of salting and soaking which is not more than 24 hours, and smoking - no more than 12 hours. The maximum temperature during smoking reaches 60 ° C. Ready pink salmon of half-hot smoked has a peculiar taste, but more like hot smoked fish. Smoked pink salmon is tasty as a separate dish, but also it is a wonderful ingredient for preparing a huge range of dishes.
Recipe 4. “Country” salad with smoked salmon
• Fillet of pink salmon, smoked 300 g
• Mayonnaise 100-120 g
• Cucumber, fresh 200 g
• Lemon or apple cider vinegar (for marinade)
• Egg, boiled 3 pcs.
• Boiled potatoes 100 g
• Onions marinated 150 g
• Greens: cilantro, celery, dill.
Onions, sliced in thin half-rings, marinated with lemon juice or apple vinegar. Vegetables, eggs and fish fillets cut into medium cubes. The ingredients are combined and mixed in a salad bowl. Chop the greens and season the salad with it by adding mayonnaise. Salt and pepper can be added as desired.
Recipe 5. Smoked salmon salad with fresh vegetables and feta
Composition of products:
• Fresh cucumbers 350 g
• Smoked pink salmon fillet 300 g
• Cherry 7-8 pcs.
• Feta 150g
• Marinated onions 100 g
• Greens and black olives without stones (for decoration).
The highlight of the salad will be cutting all the ingredients into large pieces. First, take smoked pink salmon fillet and chop it. Then go to the vegetables. Cucumbers, tomatoes and onions should be washed, cut into half rings. Soak the onions in the marinade of water and lemon juice or vinegar. Chop greens finely. You can use dill, parsley, celery, basil. Mix the ingredients, fill with mayonnaise and knead well. Lay out the pieces of feta and olives on top. If desired, mayonnaise can be replaced with sour cream, so the salad will be tastier and healthier. Before salt salad, you should try it, because pink salmon, which is already salted in it, and salt may not be required.
Recipe 6. Jellied “Ocean” with smoked salmon
Composition of products:
• Smoked salmon 600 g
• Boiled shrimp, peeled 500 g
• Mayonnaise 150g
• Lemon juice 3 tsp.
• Onions (small size) 2 pcs.
• Gelatin, instant 50 g
• Vegetable broth.
Soak gelatin and wait until it swells, then strain. Cut the pink salmon fillet into small pieces, mix with finely chopped onion and add mayonnaise. Shrimp should be boiled in vegetable broth and cooled. Strain the broth and combine it with the dissolved gelatin. Place the pink salmon fillet with onions in portions, above the shrimps and fill with broth. Maintain the filler in the refrigerator until it freezes. Before serving the form for a few seconds, immerse in hot water, and, turning, shift the filler on a plate or a common dish. Decorated with herbs and a slice of lemon.
Recipe 7. Smoked salmon and avocado salad
Composition of products:
• Smoked salmon (fillet) 200 g
• Avocado 2 pcs.
• Cherry Tomato 5 pcs.
• Green olives (pitted) 150 g
• Oil, olive 50-70 ml
• Lemon juice (for oil filling)
• Boiled vermicelli 250 g
• Lettuce, greens (for registration)
In a boiled vermicelli, add a little olive oil. Pink salmon fillet and peeled avocado cut into small pieces. Tomatoes should be cut into slices. Shift all the ingredients, add the olives, season with butter and lemon juice, salt and pepper. Put the lettuce leaves on the dish and place the salad on top of it.
Smoking of pink salmon - tricks and useful tips
• Prepare fish soup from the head, tail and spine part of the pink salmon, which was left for smoked food, adding small river fish or fat mackerel to improve the taste of the broth.
• In order to evenly penetrate smoke into the inside of the carcass during the smoking process, several struts are inserted between the abdominal walls of the toothpicks, from head to tail.
• To pickle and smoke each piece or individual fish at the same time, choose raw materials of the same size, or cut the same pieces of fillet.
• Frozen pink salmon before the ambassador should not be completely defrosted. It is better to salt it in a semi-frozen form and, tightly closing the container with fish, store in the refrigerator until complete salting.
Never forget that the most severe food poisoning causes poor-quality fish products. Moreover, it is not at all necessary to suspect that the seller of fish is dishonest - it can be spoiled during cooking or storage at home.
Be careful! Follow the correct technology of cooking fish and try to use the advice of proven sources.